The Renewable Energy Framework Indicator (REFI) provides an annual assessment of the framework conditions for the deployment of PV and wind energy onshore on Member State level. The map below provides an overview of the REFI values for the European Member States for wind onshore and PV. You may switch between the technologies by clicking on the respective button. The indicator values range between 1 (indicating very favourable conditions) and 0 (indicating very unfavourable conditions). By clicking on a country on the map you can access more detailed information on the framework conditions for the deployment of PV and wind energy onshore in the respective Member State.
This graph displays the ranges of the REFI scores for wind onshore and PV across the 28 EU Member States. The boxplots summarise the scores for the main components of the REFI. You may switch between the technologies by clicking on the respective button. By moving the mouse over the boxplots you can see more detailed information on the individual values.
This graph shows the score of the REFI in the best performing EU country. The overall score for each technology is displayed in the center of the graph, the individual sections represent the scores for the 16 sub-indicators. You may switch between the technologies by clicking on the respective button. By moving the mouse over the different sections of the graph you can see a description and the value of each sub-indicator.
For the methodology of the Renewable energy framework indicator CLICK HERE.
The RNP project analyses the obstacles hindering the development of RES across all three energy sectors (electricity, heating & cooling, transport) in the European Union. The below map displays the obstacles index, whose calculation is based on the entire obstacles content of all Member States in all three sectors. The higher the value of a country, the more it is affected by the occurrence of obstacles.
By clicking on a country, you can access a comprehensive collection of obstacles for the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the respective Member State.
Best practices are defined as exemplary practices or actions, which have proven to contribute to a significant extend to the development of renewable energies. Please find below a list of all identified best practices. The entries can be filtered by sector, category and sub-category.
In the context of a transitioning energy system with decentralised and interdependent market players, the sharing of best practises is foundational for a successful broad application of them. In this regard, the Dutch Government has launched in November 2017, together with parties from the wind energy sector, an international campaign called “Wind and Water Works”. With this campaign, the Netherlands Government aims to export its expertise on wind energy at sea to other countries. This includes an effective policy that had led to a quick decrease of the price of wind energy pro-duced at sea. As a reminder, the Dutch policy had allowed the first tender without subsidy for a wind power park at sea in December 2017.
According to par. 118 section 3b in the Building Code of Vienna, there is an obligation for solar PV capacity for new buildings. This amounts to 1 kWp per 100 m2 of gross floor area. Excempted building types are residential buildings and buildings serving educational purposes.
In the federal state Burgenland, the zones suitable for the development of wind power stations are developed in a zoning process. This process includes all relevant stakeholders like project developers, municipalities, environmental groups etc. Due to this comprehensive approach, there is a wider acceptance for wind power projects and less resistance. The aim of the zoning process is to provide 100% of electricity from RES. Therefore the process is an ideal way to define a roadmap to a fully renewable electricity system.
Net metering scheme in Cyprus was introduced in 2013. In the first year of its operation, almost 5,000 PV installations were approved. Initially, the net metering scheme supported "vulnerable" consumers, i.e. consumers with low income, through a grant for the purchase and installation of PV systems. In addition, the billing was based on an annual basis, instead of every two or three months. Combination of both above given key aspects of the net metering scheme created attractive conditions for PV producers and helped to adjust the fluctuations of PV generation throughout the year.
Solar thermal capacity per capita in Cyprus is the highest in the EU. This is a result of a number of policies and measures implemented. First, RES H&C obligation promotes the use of RES H&C technologies in new buildings, mainly solar thermal. Since 2017 new buildings in Cyprus are obliged to cover 25% of their energy demand from renewable energy sources. In addition, technical conditions for solar thermal installation are loosened and this facilitates and accelerates the expansion of solar energy across the country. In addition, the deployment of solar thermal in Cyprus was boosted by the "Energy Upgrading of Domestic Residences" scheme which supported the installation of renewable energy sources. Two calls were launched under this scheme in 2016 and 2018. Both calls stopped receiving applications shortly after their introduction, due to an increased interest. In addition, the scheme "Installation and replacement of solar thermal installations for hot water in domestic residences" offered grants for the purchase and replacement of solar thermal installations. Two calls were open for applications in 2016 and 2017 respectively. Concerning the 2017 call, the latter scheme was open for applications from September 2017 until December 2018. During this period 1,900 applications were submitted and the budget of € 600,000 was almost exhausted.
In the H&C sector, Estonia is one of the leading countries in the EU in terms of RES-share. In fact, cogeneration through combined heat and power (CHP) was covered to 57% by renewables in 2016. As far as district heating is concerned, renewables represented 51% of the energy sources in 2016, whereas local heating was covered to 60% by renewables in 2016.
These encouraging figures are the result of a combination of factors:
1. The presence of national and EU funded support measures into fuel replacement and district heating infrastructure reconstruction;
2. The gradual increase of excise tax for natural gas
3. The competitive price of wood chip (the price of wood chips as of March 2018 in Estonia was around € 29 per cubic metre. )
In November 2017, Estonia became one of the first EU member states to transfer renewable statistics to another member state, when an agreement to transfer renewable energy statistics in the amount of 700 GWh during the years 2018-2020 was signed with Luxembourg. The proceeds of the agreement, € 10.5 million, were to be allocated through the state budget to the Estonian TSO in order to finance support schemes for renewable energy production. In March 2018, the Government Office, responsible for policy drafting and implementation to support the Government and the Prime Minister, announced the launch of an expert group to coordinate the trading of renewable energy statistics. The group, whose members include government officials and entrepreneurs, will map EU countries interested in cooperating with Estonia, compile an overview of possible cooperation measures and projects, and design offers to interested countries. The trading of statistics is possible, because Estonia has fulfilled its general RES-goal for 2020 (25%). This measure will allow Estonia to sell its unused renewable energy quotas to Luxembourg in order for the latter to fulfill ist renewable energy goals.
Just a few years ago, Estonia did not have any biomethane fuelling stations (the first was opened in 2009 in Tallinn and the second one in 2010 in Tartu). Since the adoption in 2015 of a measure intended to boost the establishment of fuelling stations, 15 projects have gained funding and one town (Pärnu) is using buses running on biomethane in its public transport. This is an example of how support schemes designed by the state can successfully boost RES-development. In total, there should be 23 CNG-biomethane filling stations by 2019. For the development of biomethane petrol stations, the maximum share of costs possible to pay for through the subsidy is 35% per project and the highest possible amount is € 350,000 per project. For the public transport system, the maximum share of costs possible to pay for through the subsidy is 30% per project and the highest possible amount is € 4,000,000 per project. A total budget of € 9,000,000 is available through this measure: € 6,000,000 for projects in the public transport system in municipalities, and € 3,000,000 for biomethane petrol stations. The funds are available until the year 2020.
For the resolution of conflicts on the implementation of the EEG the Federal Ministry for Environment, Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety (BMU) set up the Clearingstelle EEG in 2007. It offers 5 different ways for conflict resolution, which are all for free except from costs resulting from external experts and lawyers. It also offers well-structured information on ongoing and terminated issues.
Wind power operators with different project and headquarter sites have to split their commercial tax into 70% for the municipality or district of the project and 30% of the municipality of the corporation's headquarters. This creates a strong incentive for the municipality, where the project is developed. Also this tax revenue does not need to be shared with other municipalities leading to a higher incentive for the municipality to support the project. See Hoffmann & Wegner (2018) for more information.
The charging station support program, which is addressing private investors as well as municipalities has proved to be a successful program. With € 300 million and a well specified project duration, it is a comprehensive support program also taking into account super charging stations.
Net metering can be hailed as a best practice example. Mainly the technical provisions can further facilitate the deployment of PV. Such provisions include “virtual net metering” and provisions relating to energy communities. These are only two distinct examples that highlight net metering in Greece as a best practice example.
The project is realised by TERNA ENERGY’s and concerns the construction of a wind park with a capacity of 73.2 MW on St. George Island. St. George Island is located in the sea area south of Cape Sounio. The wind park which is constructed on the island is operating as an autonomous electricity production unit. The connection with the National Transmission System is implemented via a new substation (20/150kv). The wind park supplies energy to the National Transmission System via a submarine cable connection ending at the "Mikro Lavrio” substation The annual produced electricity will correspond to the coverage of the energy needs of over 40,000 households per annum, while it will contribute to the savings of over 60,000 tons of oil and the reduction of over 180,000 tons of emissions per annum.
The PCI 3.24 “Pumped storage complex with two independent upper reservoirs: Ag. Georgios and Pyrgos” is located in the Municipality of Amfilochia, Prefecture of Aitoloakarnania, Central Greece. It consists of two separate upper reservoirs, “Agios Georgios” and “Pyrgos”, and a common lower reservoir, the existing Kastraki Lake (PPC ownership). The electromechanical equipment will be installed in two independent powerhouses, located on the north-eastern bank of Kastraki Lake. The purpose of the Project is energy storing to assist renewable sources integration. The excess wind, photovoltaic or thermal energy will be hydraulically stored, through water pumping from the lower to the upper reservoirs, during the low load consumption or in renewable overproduction periods.
The main objective of TILOS is the development and operation of a prototype battery system based on NaNiCl2 batteries from FIAMM, provided with an optimum, real-environment smart grid control system and coping with the challenge of supporting multiple tasks, including:
• Micro grid energy management
• Maximization of Renewable Energy System (RES) penetration
• Grid stability
• Export of guaranteed energy
• Ancillary services to the main grid of Kos
The battery system will support both stand-alone and grid-connected operation, while proving its interoperability with the rest of micro grid components, such as demand side management aspects and distributed residential heat storage in the form of domestic hot water. In addition, different operation strategies will be tested in order to define the optimum system integration.
“Amari” project is a hybrid system that combines effectively wind energy and Hydro Pumped Storage technology, offering guaranteed peak capacity to the grid 50 MW and 227GWh annual energy production.
Amari Hybrid project is located on the island of Crete and consists of two wind farms in Lasithi prefecture of installed capacity 89,1 MW and a Hydro Pumped Storage Power Plant at Rethymno prefecture of guaranteed capacity and power generation 50 MW. The lower reservoir of the plant is the existing “Potamoi Dam” lake and the upper reservoir of 1.2 mil. m3 useful volume has to be constructed. The main design of the project is completed and the EIA has been submitted for approval.
A long awaited ambitious plan is being implemented. This concerns the interconnection of Greek islands with the mainland grid. The first part of the plan to link the Cyclades islands to the mainland - which costs 245 million euros – was ready by March. The third phase of the plan aims at interconnecting more of the Cyclades islands to the main grid in 2020, two years earlier than initially planned. Apart from that ,the interconnection of Crete with the National Electricity Transmission System (NETS), project of key importance for the Greek Economy, was launched in April 2018, with the publication of the tender documents for the construction of the undersea cable connecting Peloponnese with Crete and the two substations on both ends of the cable. The first phase of the interconnection of Crete, with a total budget of mio 324 €, is planned to be co-funded by the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) 2014-20 and will be implemented by IPTO S.A. (Independent Power Transmission Operator). IPTO’s new Management in close cooperation with ADMIE Holding and the foreign strategic investor, State Grid Corporation of China speeded up the procedures, thus making visible the acceleration of its investment program, as reflected in the new Ten-Year Network Development Plan. This flagship project is a further step towards achieving the goal of ADMIE Holding and its Affiliate Company IPTO S.A. to invest 1 billion euros in the electricity transmission system within the next 5 years.
There have been almost 450Mw of wind energy that run smoothly and without any problems in Natura 2000+ sites. One of the cases is in Panachaiko, where 57 wind turbines are installed.
The new tender scheme, its provisions and how this is operated can be seen as a best practice example
Apart from the interconnections, another interesting project is the installation and operation of hybrid RES on a number of small non-interconnected Greek islands
According to experts, the decision to integrate installations producing electricity from intermittent sources into a balancing group was very positive in order to reduce overall balancing costs. The modification came into effect in late 2017 when the European Commission finally accepted the new legislative package for renewables called "METÁR" (renewable electricity generation take off scheme). Due to the new regulation for this category, incentives were created to lower the overall balancing costs and therefore the costs for renewable electricity which is borne by industrial consumers in Hungary. Before, the transmission system operator MAVIR was responsible for balancing and had no incentives to do that in an efficient way. Within the new system, different commercial balancing groups are competing against each other which motivates them to lower the balancing energy demand and improve their services for their customers - the operators - who can join a balance group of their choice.
To facilitate the green tech industries learning and workforce development ambitions, drive enterprise competitiveness and provide a future focused space for effective leadership, upskilling and networking through Ireland’s energy transition. Due to that session of seminars members of the wind energy sector remain constantly aware of the latest developments. Furthermore, Windskill was renamed Green tech Skill Net as it aims a embracing all RES and the member of the RES sector. Such a comprehensive training is also due to the organised wind supply chain. This is apparent as the whole wind supply chain is ready to contribute to wind energy expansion (from building to operation and maintenance).
The transmission grid is able to technically operate at System Non Synchronous Penetration (SNSP) limit of 65%- 75%. This is one of the highlight of the country’s transmission grid and its performance competes with pioneers of wind energy such as Denmark. Apparently, this is also result of the multi- year DS3 (“Delivering a Secure, Sustainable Electricity System”) grid development plan
The Province of Bolzano has introduced support schemes for the purchase of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. The support schemes include a € 4,000 and € 2,000 bonus on the purchase of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids respectively. The Province only pays half of the bonus, whereas the remaining part is paid by the seller through discounts on the price of the car. Furthermore, the support scheme also includes a car tax exemption for a period of 5 years. After this period, the owner of the vehicle only pays 22,5% of the ordinary tax. At the end of 2017 the number of electric vehicles in the Province of Bolzano was 257 (600 including also leased cars). This new support scheme aims at tripling the numbers of electric vehicles and at reducing CO2 tons to 1,9 by 2020.
In 2009 the local administration of Isera supported the construction of a PV plant on the acoustic shelf of the local highways. The plant, realised by Far Systems and Codioli (which are part of the Industrial Group Tosoni) has a surface of 5,034 m² and an annual production of energy of 760 MWh. The structure is characterised by two sections with slopes 60 degrees and 35 degrees. The sections are respectively 3,2 and 1,6 meters long. This configuration allows for high PV efficiency while maintining a good acoustic protection. The cost of the barrier has been of € 5,8 milions. The project benefited of the national support scheme "V Conto Energia" and the investment will be paid in 17 years. This type of solution allows to build extensive PV plants without occupying land surface.
Due to recent amendments to the Law on Energy from Renewable Sources, legal framework for solar PV installations with the capacity of up to 5 kW has been improved. First, several permissions were abolished, i.e. permission to expand electricity production capacity and permission to generate electricity. Second, preliminary technical conditions are not required anymore when generation input is 50% less than the capacity of solar PV system. As a result, duration of administrative procedures for these PV systems has been reduced from more than 4 months to less than 1 month.
There was great coordination for the deployment of wind power in Portugal, optimizing the use of locations with good natural resources, grid connection availability and tenders that were planned and announced. The industry grew a lot and everything went smoothly. For example, the Enercon factory and most other wind turbines factories began doing business in Portugal due to the 2005's tender. Additionally, RES electricity plants registered until 7 November 2012 were promoted through a feed-in tariff. A 15-year feed-in tarif was granted to wind operators, and an additional tariff period of 5 - 7 years was also negotiated. All these masures made wind power grow from 1716 MW in 2006 to 5316 MW in 2017.
The project 'Sustainable Porto Santo' aims to transform the Porto Santo island of the Madeira archipelago in an area without fossil fuels and almost zero emissions of carbon dioxide, with focus on sustainable energy and sustainable mobility. The project started on 25/05/2018, with the availability of 20 electric cars. This initiative combines technological innovation with sustainable energy and energy efficiency. This means more energy security and a better quality of life for the residents, including job creation. In the 1st phase, 20 families/entities will use 20 EVs that can be charged in one of the 40 charging stations of the island. In the 2nd phase, vehicles will go further on their interaction with the grid and will be able to discharge electricity in the grid, when electricity demand is at its peak in the island, working, on simple terms, as a battery. Batteries will also store energy produced by PV and wind installed in Porto Santo. By better managing the existing natural resources, Porto Santo aims to be the first intelligent island in the world and hopes to inspire other islands to do the same.
Although Slovenia has high biomass potential and considering the current technologies using biomass for individual heating purposes, there is still a lack in RES-driven small-scale district heating networks. However, according to stakeholders, there are a few examples of small-scale district heating installations from the last years, which could be considered as best practice examples for utilising wood biomass for district heating purposes using forest by-products purchased from local suppliers. For instance, the district heating system of the Municipality of Kuzma was supported, inter alia, by a non-financial initiative in order to improve the poor local situation regarding individual heating. The initiative included among others a support in the carrying out of administrative procedures and acquiring of required documentation. Furthermore, the project received a grant through the national DOLB programme, which supports district heating from wood biomass. The support amounted to 50 % of the investment, with an overall investment amounting to € 800,000.
Since the start of the project in 2012, more than 35 houses benefitted from the new heating system. A further positive effect is the fact that the biomass used for the heating system has been purchased from local suppliers. Two biomass boilers including a 10 m3 heat storage which covers peak heat demand have been constructed for the purposes of the project. As a result, the project is annually saving 300 t of CO2.
The island of El Hierro in Spain is a worldwide example for sustainability and energy self-sufficiency. It has a wind-hydro system that supplies almost the entirety of the island's power demand with RES and also the storage of excess of wind energy, which is converted into water's potential energy to be used when the wind resource is not enough to meed the demand.The wind-hydro system was implemented in 2014, and in 2017 it generated 47% of the consumed electricity in the island. For 2018, it is expected to cover 60%, and the goal is for this number to be 100% in the coming years. This results in environmental, economic, social and energy-related benefits for the society.
There was great coordination for the deployment of wind power in Spain. Wind power's implementation with the FiT that grew stepwise was a sustainable way of implementing this new technology into the market.The capacity installed over the years was also sustainable, thanks to the regulation. The maturation period for wind power was adequate, which was not the case for PV, for instance. Spanish feed-in legislation for wind power was set by Royal Decree 661/2007, which determined a value of up to 7.32 c€/kWh for the first 20 years of operation. From 2007 to 2012 (when the measure was stopped by the government), the wind power installed capacity in Spain jumped from 13 664 MW to 22 757 MW.
CfD auctions can be seen as a best practice example. This is the case for offshore wind. During the latest CfD auction in April 2017, there has been a competition of different offshore wind projects and this has driven down strike prices. There is a capacity and a steady pipeline of such projects and the results of the auction have shown how well these are designed.
Walney Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm 14 km west of Walney Island off the coast of Cumbria, in the Irish Sea, England. It has a capacity of 367 MW, which makes it one of the world's largest offshore wind farms. Walney I & II and it extension has proven to be excellent examples of technical developments as far as the building of foundations and the turbine rates (8.25 MW) is concerned.
Despite the fact that public perception on biomass technologies is positive only very few not about those technologies and how they work.
ADBA has been working on the Best Practice Scheme since 2015. A Certification Scheme sets out defined criteria which an applicant (in this case, an AD operator) must demonstrate that they meet in order to be certified under that scheme. The Best Practice Scheme will be voluntary but operators that successfully become certified will have access to a range of tangible benefits. This is a credential that the plant is performing well and is safely run.
It is an innovative project that aims at injecting biomethane while the gas network has no need to add propane to the gas.
In northern parts of the UK, feed wheat is used for the production of bioethanol. If the crop is fermented then it produces a by-product, DDGS (Distillers Dried Gain with Soluble) which is protein rich and can be used as an animal feed. The yeast boosts protein content and even if the wheat occupies land that could be used for food cultivation one should consider that bioethanol would be produced by imported soya beans. Consequently, this is a best practice example for 1st generation biofuels.
There has been considerable research to exploit fat lumps from the sewage system that can be used as a feedstock as biodiesel
it is the first subsidy free plant in the UK. It has a capacity of 10-20MW, while it has a battery Li-on storage of 6Mh.
The world's first floating wind farm, will next year be .equipped with a battery to store power from the wind farm
NIRIG is a joint collaboration between the Irish Wind Energy Association and RenewableUK. This is a unique partnership as it brings together two RES associations. Such a collaboration may prove to be of augmented importance in the future, due to the fact that UK leaves the EU, while the Republic of Ireland remains a EU Member State
The Renewables Grid Liaison Group was set-up in 2012 in response to the Northern Ireland Executive’s 40% renewable energy target, to facilitate a coordinated response from the electricity industry. The group includes representatives from the Utility Regulator, SONI Ltd, NIE Ltd, and the renewable generation sector.
The purpose of the group is:
to discuss and facilitate progress in the development of Northern Ireland’s electricity grid and renewable connections, in order to achieve the 40% renewable target;
To help ensure there is effective communication and progress on generation connections and related policy implementation;
To share relevant information and provide updates on progress in respect of all matters relating to the issues under consideration;
To communicate, as required, with other stakeholders and stakeholders groups where this is required to address the issues under consideration by the group;
To identify and act upon other issues that the group considers merit consideration and prioritise as appropriate.
The RES LEGAL database includes an overview of the national policies and support schemes for renewable energy in all three sectors. It provides a quick overview of the different national regulations regarding renewable energy sources in a clear, concise and convenient way. The creation date and the last update of the information are displayed in each country profile. The descriptions of the national measures are based on the relevant legal sources. Links to the original legal sources in their original language are included as hyperlinks. In addition, a list of contacts in national bodies and experts is included for gathering further information on the displayed topics. The RES LEGAL Europe database can be accessed by clicking on the project logo.
This section provides further insights on country-specific results derived within a model-based analysis of RES-E policy pathways towards 2030. More precisely, the outcomes of a quantitative policy analysis of various scenarios on future RES deployment within the EU are used to indicate the impact of our suggested measures on related policy costs.